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FUSION TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT
Radiofrequency low-temperature plasma source for biomedical use
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The radiofrequency plasma source is a tool developed at Consorzio RFX (Italy) whose main research field is magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The plasma source is a handheld device producing a helium low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma that creates active chemical species enabling biological and therapeutic effect with no direct contact. RFX holds a European patent on the device and seeks companies willing to get a license to develop a commercial product.

Membrane processes for Hydrogen separation and production
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These membrane devices have been developed at ENEA Frascati laboratories for separation of hydrogen isotopes from tritiated water. Applied to the production of H2 from biomass, the dehydrogenation process on which these devices are based, allows the achievement of higher hydrogen and syngas yields than traditional reactors. Furthermore, these processes represent the only solution available for some kind of biomass (i.e. olive mill wastewater) that cannot be treated via the conventional biological processes.

3-D Mesoscale Soft X-ray microtomography for low contrast biological or soft samples, with control of the X-ray range
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ENEA Laboratories in Frascati developed this mesoscale soft X-ray microtomography for reconstructing the 3-D structure of small, pretty transparent to X-rays objects, with moderate spatial resolution and very low contrast, like biological samples. Commercial microtomographs are not suitable for this application due to high energy working X-rays and not efficient detection. With this fusion-derived technology, the energy spectrum is tailored to maximize the contrast of the sample and the X-ray detector is optimized accordingly.

Tungsten-based semi-finished products with high toughness, ductility, strength, and thermal conductivity
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Scientists at KIT have developed a strong know-how in the production of tungsten laminate semi-finished products for plates, pipes or foils. They are used for W-Cu Laminated cooling Pipes, Helium Cooled High Heat Flux Mock-ups and has found application in fusion under EFDA programme (Tungsten laminate pipes for Innovative High Temperature Energy Conversion Systems or structural divertor applications for example). This expertise offers the possibility to produce ductile/tough tungsten materials with high thermal conductivity and high strength. The innovative approach by laminating tungsten foils to semi-finished products opens a new materials class that enables various applications in cooling, energy conversion technology or structural/functional high-temperature applications in vacuum or inert gas.

Powder Injection Molding for large scale tungsten alloys parts
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Developed at KIT IAM-WK, this technology and know-how consist in metal or ceramic parts manufacturing via Powder Injection Molding and include the whole process chain (development, design and fabrication of a PIM tool, filling simulation, tailored feedstock preparation, injection molding, debinding and sintering. Manufacturing materials with high melting points, such as tungsten or doped (with oxides or carbides) tungsten materials with near-net shape precision and in medium to high volumes is a technology of interest for fusion, especially for plasma-facing material (for example Langmuir probes for the WEST project have been produced via PIM). Besides, this technology could find promising applications in solar ovens, power units but also for cost effective mass production of Carbide tools, electrodes, jewellery, turbine blades or in sports accessories: e.g. arrowheads (archery, darts).

Deposition of thick tungsten and high melting point materials coatings
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Plasma Spray is the most versatile of all the thermal spray processes and can be used to deposit very different materials, from metals to ceramics. RINA Consulting – CSM has a special equipment installed in Rome and is able to work in different modalities (APS, VPS, IPS, and HPPS) with a chamber volume of about seven cubic meters and the possibility to deposit thick coatings from 50 micron to some millimetres of thickness. The technology has been used in several nuclear activities focused on the study of the plasma-wall interaction in the presence of high thermal loads and received funding’s within EFDA and its main advantage is the possibility to deposit materials with very high melting point so it is the best solution for ceramics and refractory metals.

Oxidation resistant tungsten-based alloys for high temperature application
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CEIT-IK4 is a non-profit research centre located in San Sebastian, Spain, whose main task is to carry out industrial research projects under contract, in collaboration with R&D departments of companies. CEIT-IK4 works on the development of Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys for the first wall of fusion reactors and provides major safety advantage compared to pure W incase of a LOCA with simultaneous air ingress, due to the formation of a protective scale preventing the formation of volatile and radioactive WO3. Potential non-fusion applications are all those high temperature fields for which pure tungsten would be a good option but its poor oxidation resistance prevents its use or leads to short in service lifetime: electrodes, electrical contacts, balancing weights in gas turbine rotors, components in high temperature furnaces…

Investigating radiation damage in materials using ion beam
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Considering the evolution of microstructures and material properties under extreme radiation conditions, the JANNuS facility has been developed at University Paris-Saclay that allow multi-scale modelling of radiation effects in materials with in situ observations of microstructure modifications. The versatility of conditions in terms of particle energy, dose rate, fluence, etc., is a key asset of ion beams allowing fully instrumented analytical studies. Coupling of two or more beams, use of heated/cooled sample holders, and implementation of in situ characterization and microscopy pave the way to real time observation of microstructural and property evolution in various extreme radiation conditions more closely mimicking the nuclearenvironments.
Many promising applications in electronics, space, geologyare considered.

Synthesis of nanometric MoNbW alloy using self-propagating hightemperature synthesis
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Considering applications for plasma facing materials (PFM) in tokamak, the French laboratory LSPM has developed a new methodology for nanometric refractory tungsten alloys manufacruting with high homogeneity in composition. The originality of the invention consists in providing to the nanopowders interesting properties’ such as a low brittle-to-ductile transition temperature in order to be machinable, and a good resistance to oxidation. The synthesis of nanometric tungsten alloy powder into submicron platelets offers an increase of ductility of up to 30% and make them suitable for fusion application. This methodology could be applied to other binary, ternary and quaternary alloys as well as High Entropy Alloys (HEA) and find therefore potential applications in non-fusion domains.

Toolbox for fast detection and tracking of dust particles in tokamak
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Monitoring the dust within a tokamak is quite challenging: dust particles in the transitory state measure only few microns and despite their high thermal radiation are quite challenging to be characterized in term of speed, acceleration and change of direction. For years the plasma physicists of Institut Jean Lamour and then the spin-off APREX Solutions developed measurements tools to carry out truly statistical multi-physics investigations based on the analysis of thousands of tokamak discharges in all kinds of conditions. This solution able to track and analyze images and videos simultaneously and in real is suitable for many non-fusion use cases

Fast Gas Inlet Valve insensitive to Magnetic Fields
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The object of the invention is to provide a fast gas  inlet  valve,  primarily  for  emergency  situations,  fitted  inside  a  magnetic  field device,  but  not  sensitive  to  the  magnetic  field. This device was originally  developed for use  within  the  nuclear  fusion  domain,  but  is  also  available  for  use  in  other  domains  with similar demanding  environments.

Optimum grating parameters  for a VUV  (vacuum  ultraviolet)  spectrometer
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The  object  of  the  invention  is  to  provide manufacturing parameters for a  holographic  diffraction  grating  on  a  concave  or  toroidal  surface,  which  is used as the single optical element in a VUV spectrometer with a flat detector. The spectrometer geometry is also defined alongside the diffraction grating parameters. The invention from the research center Juelich (Germany) consists of a proprietary software  code  which  uses  various  numerical  methods  to  determine  the  optimal  grating parameters, with the aim of producing such gratings for VUV spectrometers with  a  minimal  line  width  for  a  pre-­‐defined  wavelength  and  at  the  same  time  achieving high spectrometer efficiencies.

Ultra Sniffer New leak detection  method
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The test sensitivity of classic sniffer test methods  is  limited  by  the  helium  concentration  in  the  air,  but  by  reducing  the  atmospheric helium concentration the test sensitivity can be significantly improved. The Ultra Sniffer Test gas (UST) method is simple – there is no evacuation of the test chamber, only a filling with helium free gas. The method has successfully been used for testing super conducting coils for Wendelstein 7-­‐X at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald. The technology is ready for use in the non-­‐fusion domain  and  is  currently  being  commercialized  by  the  inventor,  Mr.  Robert  Brockmann.

Metal Pipe as a Structural Component
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The technology is related to the use of metal  pipes  constructed  from  several  layers  of  metal  foil  as  structural components, and the process for their manufacture. The original use of these is in nuclear fusion reactors, for which they  have  been  successfully  tested and  where  such  pipes  would  be  exposed  to  extremely  high  temperature  and  pressure regimes, far exceeding the allowable regime of application of conventional (steel)  pipes.  The  technology  is  ready  for  use  in  the  non-­‐fusion  domain  and  was  patented by the inventors Jens Reiser, Bermhard Dafferner, Anfreas Hoffmann, Michael Rieth, Werner Schulmeyer and Anton Möslang.

CeBr Scintillators
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Technology, know-­‐how, and expertise have
been developed by a world-­‐renowned nuclear fusion organization within the field of CeBr (Cerium Bromide) Scintillators. These scintillators have been characterized to have a fast response time of less than 20ns and the energy resolution at 511keV is about 4%. Previously, conventional gamma ray detectors have been unsatisfactory in their time resolution, limiting their applications in medical PET scanners and material science measurements.

Improved Carbon Fibre Composite
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The technology presented is a novel carbon  fibre  composite  structure  with a substantially reduced erosion rate when used on surfaces subjected to heating by high velocity particle flows. The innovation  relates  to  the  arrangement  of  the  sewing  and  web  fibres  while  maintaining the actual structure of the pitch/carbon fibres that make up the main heat  conducting  capability.  Such  an  improved  structure  reinforces  the  thermal  shielding capability of the components and reduces the erosion rate by 4 to 5 times compared to conventional carbon fibre composite material. The technology can be used  in  the  non­‐fusion  domain  and  was  patented  by  the  inventor,  Dr.  Sergey  Peschany.

Prevention of Parasitic Oscillations in Electron Beam Tubes
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The  innovation  relates  to  a  device  for 
preventing  parasitic  oscillations  in  electron beam  tubes.  It  comprises  a  beam  tunnel subject  to  an  axial  static  magnetic  field.  The  tunnel  is  equipped  with  ceramic  and  metal rings arranged alternately in the axial direction. These rings yield a structure on the inner surface preventing the harmonic rise of spurious oscillations that could otherwise  damage  the  tube.  The  technology  is  ready  for  use  in  the  non-­‐fusion  domain and was patented by the inventors Manfred Thumm and Gerd Gantenbein.

Method for increasing the concentration of tritiated water
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A  leading  European  fusion  laboratory  has  developed  a  method  for  increasing  the  concentration  of  tritiated  waste  water  whilst  reducing  the  volume.  The  process  involves electrolysing the tritiated waste water and then humidifying the evolved gas to reintroduce the tritium into the waste water. This increases the concentration of the  solution  but  reduces  the  volume.  This  could  be  applied  in  areas  such  as  life  sciences where tritiated water is used as a tracer.

Diamond Detector Matrix
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A 12-­‐pixels diamond based neutron spectrometer
matrix has been built in a collaboration between
the  two  CNR  institutes  IFP  (Institute  of  Plasma 
Physics,  Milan)  and  ISM  (Institute  of  the  Structure  of  Matter,  Rome).  The  spectrometer is equipped with fast electronics and digital acquisition, which for the first  time  allows  combined  fast  neutron  spectroscopy  (>1  MeV)  with  good  energy  resolution (<3% at 14 MeV) and high count-­‐rate capability in excess of 1 MHz.

EIRENE Code
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The EIRENE code has been developed within the nuclear fusion domain to solve the kinetic  transport  equations  of  neutral  particles  within  natural  gas  transport.  It  is  a  multiw species  code  that  simultaneously  solves  a  system  of  time  dependent or stationary linear transport equations of almost arbitrary complexity.  EIRENE allows, in  a  flexible  manner,  a  complex  system  of  collisions  (elastic  collisions,  ionization  &  recombination etc) to be defined for neutral particles via an  input file.

Technology for producing and utilising a protective layer on martensitic steel
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Martensitic steel is often used when high toughness Steel with high formability is required. When such steel is used in fusion experiments, a layer to protect against losses (diffusion) of Tritium is required. The invention is a production process in which these material attributes are achieved. In a sequence of steps, the basic steel material is coated, pressurized and further hardened to achieve these characteristics. The technology is ready for use in the non-­‐fusion domain and was patented by the inventors, Heike Glasbrenner, Kathleen Stein-­‐Fechner and Olaf Wedemeyer.

Axial Potential Separator suitable for Cryotechnics
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The technology innovation is a new electrical potential separator for cryotechnics. It is applicable particularly to electrically isolating areas, in which different potentials occur. The device consists of a dielectric tube e.g. made of polyimide, which still isolates when subjected to low temperatures as a result of its material properties. An annular groove is located on the exterior of both end areas of the tube, in which a support ring is inlaid. Electrodes are applied to the tube such that they cannot be removed. The electrodes themselves are detachably connected to flanges that are pulled onto the face of the tube to seal the device. The technology is ready for use in the non‐fusion domain and was patented by the inventors Stefan Fink and Günter Friesinger.

ERO Code
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ERO is a 3D Monte Carlo code for simulating the migration of impurities in plasma. It takes into account the source of the particles, disassociation and ionization, how the particles are transported, and also the interactions with boundary conditions. The models are supported by an extensive database that is constantly updated and complemented from different sources.

Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) DataFurnace Code
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IBA DataFurnace is a general­‐purpose analytical code for data analysis of ion beam analysis (IBA) data. It is in active development with the first version released in 1997. It is general within its specifications, and was developed as a general analysis tool for IBA of any type of sample. Its main features are: implementation of the largest array of techniques of any IBA code; implementation of the most advanced physics and algorithms available; simultaneous data analysis of any combination of spectra collected from a given sample.

Nanofluids For Improved Heat Transfer
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Research is underway into the use of nanofluids to improve the cooling of surfaces within fusion reactors that are exposed to extreme heat fluxes. Nanofluids are a mixture of liquids (typically water) with nanoparticles (<100nm) in a concentration that is usually less than 1% by volume. Nanoparticles being investigated are alumina, ceramics, and carbon nanotubes, as these are known to increase both the conductive and convective heat transfer coefficients by up to half an order of magnitude (5x), and the critical heat flux of current coolants by up to an order of magnitude (10x) for boiling heat transfer. Due to this, cooling systems that are based on nanofluids could deliver a step‐change in the power handling performance of heat exchangers and other components.

Hydrogen Permeation Barriers
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The Research Centre Juelich has gained substantial expertise in the development, preparation and characterization of hydrogen permeation barriers. In the fusion domain, such coatings are needed to limit losses of Tritium to the environment. Promising laboratory experiments have been conducted. A partner is sought that is interested in developing coating equipment and processes for industrial application based on the know­‐how available at Research Centre Juelich.

First-wall component for a nuclear fusion reactor
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A leading European research institution, FZ Jülich, has developed a first-­‐wall (i.e. plasma‐facing) composite component for use in a nuclear fusion reactor. The component comprises a fibre­‐reinforced graphite heat shield with a lead­‐through that contains a CuCrZr alloy cooling tube. The component is ideal for high heat flux applications such as energy generation or aerospace, as well as high neutron or plasma backgrounds. The component has been developed and successfully tested for use in the JET nuclear fusion reactor and so is highly resistant to thermal and neutron stress, and also thermal shock.

Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs) for data processing
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The renowned Università di Catania has developed a hardware system for real-­time image processing in the JET tokamak. Based on the Falcon architecture, the Cellular Neural Networks (CNN) implementation relies on a hardware system with intrinsic parallelism that can provide real-­time data processing with deterministic and constant computational times. The CNN paradigm emulates the behaviour of optic nerves in living creatures and is ideal for applications such as video surveillance, medical imaging devices, and vision-­assisted intelligent robots.

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs)
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A functionally graded transition between two materials with different material properties like thermal expansion increases the reliability of the connection between the two materials and provides the ability to control deformation, dynamic response, wear, corrosion, etc. FGMs can be used to connect many different materials such as metal/ceramic,alumina/zirconia,alumina/steel,tungsten‐carbide/steel, tungsten/copper, polymer/concrete, bones/metal, and aluminium/polyethylene.

Numerical Simulation of Materials Performance Under Thermal Loads
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The objective is to provide a method for thermal and thermo-­mechanical simulations of stresses in materials exposed to stationary and transient heat load. The Research Centre Juelich has gained substantial expertise in calibrating simulations on the basis of the Finite Elements Method that can be used to establish numerical material models to estimate component lifetime.

Neutron-insensitive silicon ion detectors for NPA (Neutral Particle Analysis)
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A leading European nuclear fusion institute has developed a thin silicon strip detector for 10‐1000 keV ions. The detector consists of an active silicon layer (5 µm thick for low‐energy ions, or 25 µm thick for detection of high-­‐energy ions) bonded to a silicon support (~300 µm thick). Unlike previous ion detectors, the thin silicon strip detector exhibits high background‐to­‐signal separation and good radiation tolerance, so is effective in high gamma, neutron, or photon backgrounds. The detector works by converting ion energy directly to charge in the silicon.


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